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Dark personalities

黑暗人格让你走向成功?

中文 英文 双语 2016-01-28    来源:21英语网原创      阅读数:205812
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导读:美国总统大选中最火的参选人唐纳德?特朗普以口无遮拦、冷酷无情著称,但是这种个性反而让他在选民中的支持率居高不下。黑暗属性的人格真有助于人们成功吗?是,也不是??蒲а芯勘砻?,黑暗人格或许短期内能帮助人们成功,但是长期来看,这种性格隐患很大。

Donald Trump, a Republican candidate in the 2016 US presidential election, is doing quite well on the campaign trail. A Jan 14 NBC/Wall Street Journal poll found that Trump was the top choice for 33 percent of Republican primary voters. That gave him a 13-point lead over his closest Republican rival, Ted Cruz. Trump is the indisputable frontrunner in the race.
唐纳德?特朗普是2016年美国总统竞选的共和党候选人之一。他的竞选之路非常顺利。在1月14号公布的(美国)全国广播电视和《华尔街日报》的联合民意调查中, 33%的共和党投票者表示以特普朗作为第一选择,这使他领先第二名——他的共和党党内竞争者特德?克鲁兹13个百分点。特朗普毫无疑问是本次竞选的大热门。

As a recent New York Times column indicated, Trump didn’t lay claim to leadership through high-minded ideals or encouraging words to voters. Instead, he is “unreservedly smug” and “unabashedly mean”. He told voters that if they are not with him, then they are losers. He attacked other candidates with personal remarks and trolled social media with highly controversial comments. But all this is not surprising: Trump was never famous for his kindness or his gentleness. One might even say it is precisely his ruthlessness and nastiness that have helped him become a successful businessman and propelled him to where he is today.
最近《纽约时报》一篇专栏文章指出,特朗普并不是通过对选民发表高屋建瓴的理念或者激动人心的言论来赢得领导地位。相反,他“毫无保留地自鸣得意”、“恬不知耻地刻薄”。他对选民说不投票给他的都是失败者。他对其他候选人进行人身攻击,故意在社交媒体上发表极富争议性的评论。但是这并不让人惊讶:特朗普从来都不是以善良和彬彬有礼出名。甚至有人说正是他的冷酷和下作让他成为一个成功的商人,才让他走到今天的位置。

So, is there anything to learn from Trump? Does ruthlessness help us get ahead in a cutthroat world? The answer is not a definite “yes” or “no”, according to a new study recently published in the journal Social Psychology and Personality Science.
那么,我们能从特朗普身上学到什么?冷酷无情能帮助我们在这个残酷的世界出人头地吗?根据一篇刊登在《社会心理学和人格科学》期刊的文章,这不是一个明确的“能”或者“不能”就能回答的问题。

Psychologists have previously identified three traits that might describe ruthless people, says a BBC article. These traits are:
英国广播公司的一篇文章说心理学家之前已经明确了描述无情之人的三种特征。它们是:

Machiavellianism: characterized by calculation and manipulation.
马基雅维利主义:以算计和操控为特征。

Narcissism: how self-centered you are.
自恋:以自我为中心

Psychopathy: a combination of risky impulsivity and callous insensitivity.
精神变态:冒险的冲动和冷酷的漠不关心的结合

In other words, there are three types of ruthlessness. Some people have one of these traits, while others possess all three.
换句话说,有三种形式的无情人格。有些人拥有其中一种特征,有的人拥有全部三种特征。

According to the new study, conducted by Daniel Spurk at the University of Bern in Switzerland, it turns out that psychopaths are the least successful people. They earned less than their peers and have lower positions on the career ladder.
根据瑞士伯尔尼大学丹尼尔?斯波克的研究,精神变态者是最不成功的人群。他们比同行挣得少,在职场阶梯中站在较低位置。

This is because psychopaths are too impulsive, says Spurk. Although their willingness to take risks might help them in some industries, their impulsiveness may mean that they are less productive in the long run. But the determining factor here may be intelligence. Smarter psychopaths might be able to temper their impulses, allowing them to win in the long run.
斯波克说这是因为精神变态者太冲动。尽管他们愿意冒风险的特点或许在某些行业有用,但是他们的冲动特点可能意味着长期来看他们生产率低。但是这里的决定性因素可能是智力。比较聪明的精神变态者或许能控制他们的冲动,让他们最终获得成功。

The people with a Machiavellian streak in Spurk’s study group enjoyed high degrees of career success. This may not be surprising, as manipulative people have the ability to mold social situations to their advantage and play on other people’s weaknesses.
在斯波克的研究组中,具有马基雅维利主义特征的人在职场上高度成功。这一点也许并不让人惊奇,因为善于操控的人有能力让社会境遇变得对他有利并且利用他人的弱点。

But overall, as Spurk’s study showed, it was the narcissists who stole the show when it came to financial earnings. This may be because narcissists have a strong sense of self-worth. “Individuals high in narcissism have good impression management, so they can convince their colleagues or supervisors that they are worth special advantages,” Spurk says.
但是总体来说,就如斯波克的研究所显示的那样,当涉及财务收入时,自恋者大出风头。这也许是因为自恋者有很强的自我价值感?!白粤档娜擞泻芎玫墓芾碜约焊肆粝掠∠蟮哪芰?,所以他们能让同事和上级相信他们值得一些特殊的优待,”斯波克说道。

But people with dark personalities may lose in the long run. Narcissists may be big earners, but they may suffer socially and have fewer friends.
但是拥有黑暗人格的人长远来看或许会失败。自恋者也许赚很多钱,但是他们也许会承受社交失败的痛苦,没有多少朋友。

“Although people who don’t know narcissists very well think they are charismatic, in the mid-to-long term there might be situations where people are no longer fascinated by their behavior,” says Spurk. As for Machiavellians, they may come undone once their ruthless manipulations are exposed.
斯波克说:“尽管一些不了解自恋者的人认为自恋者魅力非凡,从中长期来看,人们或许不会再被他们的行为吸引?!?而一旦马基雅维利主义者无情的操控手法曝光的话,他们也许会前功尽弃。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: Chen Yuanyuan AND Chen Huan)


以上文章内容选自《21世纪英文报》,详情请见《21世纪英文报》1140期
辞海拾贝
Indisputable无可争辩的 Frontrunner领先者
Smug沾沾自喜 Unabashed不在乎的,不难为情的
Troll在网上发表激烈言辞引发争论 Ruthless无情的
Nastiness无理,凶恶 Propel推动
Manipulation操纵 Insensitive漠不关心的
Temper缓和 


 
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