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英文里的“神昵称”背后都有些什么好玩的故事?
来源:21英语网    日期: 2014-10-06

  

   在以前的微信中,世纪君曾化身“学霸君”为小伙伴们讲解了诸多英文名称背后不为人知的含义,大家纷纷点赞让世纪君爱觉不累!于是,今天世纪君决定再次变身,为小伙伴们带来英文名字背后故事的番外篇,讲讲那些与原名“毫无关系”的昵称都是怎么来滴~比如,Bill其实是William的昵称,而Edward的昵称竟然是Ted!这些“神昵称”的背后都有着怎样的故事?一起来探秘吧~

    

   1.Why is Dick from Richard?

   Richard的昵称是……Dick?

  

   钢琴王子理查德·布莱德曼(Richard Clayderman)

    

   Richard是一个古老(TA从中世纪就有啦~)却颇受欢迎的名字,但是,在手写一统天下的十二、十三世纪,每次写这个名字都很费时间啊有木有?于是,简写就成了TA昵称的最初来源,比如Rich或者Rick??墒?,写完很难念啊有木有?于是,本着押韵的原则,Rich就变成了Hitch,而Rick就变成了Dick。Dick这个名字一度曾风靡英格兰,所以“Tom, Dick, Harry”就有了“所有人”的含义。类似于咱们的“小明、小华、小强”~不过,到了现代,起这个英文名字要慎重,因为dick在俚语中有男性生殖器的含义。

    

   The name Richard is very old and was popular during the Middle Ages. In the 12th and 13th centuries everything was written by hand and Richard nicknames like Rich and Rick were common just to save time. Rhyming nicknames were also common and eventually Rick gave way to Dick and Hick, while Rich became Hitch. Dick, of course, is the only rhyming nickname that stuck over time. And boy did it stick. At one point in England, the name Dick was so popular that the phrase "every Tom, Dick, or Harry" was used to describe Everyman.

    

   2.Why is Bill from William?

   William的小名是……Bill?

  

   “比利王”威廉三世(William III )

    

   这得有怎样的联想能力才能从William变成Bill!其实外国小伙伴也表示很难理解,于是众说纷纭。其中,最广为接受的解释也是因为字母变换和韵律。从William简化至Will之后,小伙伴觉得硬辅音发音更容易,于是Will就变成了带有爆破音的Bill……一个有趣的例子来自十七世纪末期,威廉三世统治英国时,他就被子民戏称为“比利王”。

    

   There are many theories on why Bill became a nickname for William; the most obvious is that it was part of the Middle Ages trend of letter swapping. Much how Dick is a rhyming nickname for Rick, the same is true of Bill and Will. Because hard consonants are easier to pronounce than soft ones, some believe Will morphed into Bill for phonetic reasons. Interestingly, when William III ruled over in England in the late 17th century, his subjects mockingly referred to him as "King Billy."

    

   3.Why is Hank from Henry?

   Hank是……Henry的昵称?

  

   哈里王子(Prince Harry)

    

   Henry也是英国中世纪的一个名字(当时,Hank还是John的昵称,这个才更难理解好吧?)。一种说法是Hank是由Henry在荷兰语中的形式Hendrick简化而来,Hanks这个名字曾在美国广泛使用,直到九十年代初期才退出男孩名字的“千名榜”。不过,从2010年起,Hank又开始流行起来,使用量上升至806名,到2013年已攀至626名。

    

   The name Henry dates back to medieval England. (Curiously, at that time, Hank was a diminutive for John.) So how do we get Hank from Henry? Well, one theory says that Hendrick is the Dutch form of the English name Henry. Henk is the diminutive form of Hendrick, ergo, Hank from Henk. Hanks were hugely popular here in the States for many decades, though by the early 90s it no longer appeared in the top 1,000 names for baby boys. But Hank is making a comeback! In 2010, it cracked the top 1,000, settling at 806. By 2013 it was up to 626.

    

   4.Why is Jack from John?

   John的昵称是……Jack?

  

   《神探夏洛克》中的约翰·华生(John Watson)

    

   Jack在1200年就已经出现了,不过当时他是农民的总称,所以,后来延伸出lumberjack(伐木工),steeplejack(尖顶修建工)。总之,Jack在英语中都是代指农民或是普通人。这样想想,是不是和“路人甲”(John Doe)有些异曲同工之处,难道这就是Jack成为John昵称的原因?(好强大的想象力,世纪君竟不能反驳?。┎还?,更广为接受的解释依旧来自语言学观点,认为John当时被诺曼人简称为Jen,而他们又喜欢在人名后加-Kin表示亲昵,于是Jenkin就变成了John的昵称。此后又一路演变为Jakin,最后终于成了Jack。

    

   The name Jack dates back to about 1,200 and was originally used as a generic name for peasants. Over time, Jack worked his way into words such as lumberjack and steeplejack. Of course, John was once used as a generic name for English commoners and peasants, (John Doe) which could be why Jack became his nickname. But the more likely explanation is that Normans added -kin when they wanted to make a diminutive. And Jen was their way of saying John. So little John became Jenkin and time turned that into Jakin, which ultimately became Jack.

    

   5.Why is Chuck from Charles?

   我叫Charles,不过你也可以叫我……Chuck!

  

   查尔斯王子(The Prince Charles)

    

   英语中“Dear Chuck”表示“亲爱的”,在四大悲剧《麦克白》中,莎士比亚还曾用这个词组代称麦克白夫人。等等,这和Charles有什么关系么?这个……还真没有,但是这么有趣的故事不告诉小伙伴怎么行!至于Charles,一些人认为是因为其在中世纪英语中的形式是Chukken,于是其昵称叫Chuck也合情合理嘛!

    

   "Dear Chuck" was an English term of endearment and Shakespeare, in Macbeth, used the phrase to refer to Lady Macbeth. What's this have to do with Charles? Not much, but it's interesting. However, Charles in Middle English was Chukken and that's probably where the nickname was born.

    

   6.Why is Peggy from Margaret?

   你好,Margaret……哦不,Hi,Peggy!

  

   《飘》的作者玛格丽特·米切尔(Margaret Mitchell)

    

   Margaret有很多昵称,比如Meg,Mog,以及Maggie,还有匪夷所思的Daisy。而Peg(gy)则是由Mog/Meg音律变化而来。(依旧觉得Maggie叫起来比较顺耳的小伙伴请举手?。?/p>

    

   The name Margaret has a variety of different nicknames. Some are obvious, as in Meg, Mog and Maggie, while others are downright strange, like Daisy. But it's the Mog/Meg we want to concentrate on here as those nicknames later morphed into the rhymed forms Pog(gy) and Peg(gy).

    

   7.Why is Ted from Edward?

   Edward也可以昵称为……Ted?

  

   《暮光之城》男主角爱德华(Edward Cullen)

    

   由于中世纪时,名字的数量十分有限,比如你叫一声Edward,就会有无数个Edward站起来……为了区别重名的人,聪明的小伙伴就发明出变换字母的好方法,比如开头是元音E的单词首字母替换成一个好念又好记的辅音字母T,于是Edward变成Ted就不难理解了。除此之外,Ted还是Theodore的昵称,TA也是目前唯一一个指代两个名字的昵称,或者你还能举出其他这样的例子么?

    

   The name Ted is yet another result of the Old English tradition of letter swapping. Since there were a limited number of first names in the Middle Ages, letter swapping allowed people to differentiate between people with the same name. It was common to replace the first letter of a name that began with a vowel, as in Edward, with an easier to pronounce consonant, such as T. Of course, Ted was already a popular nickname for Theodore, which makes it one of the only nicknames derived from two different first names. Can you name the others?

    

   8.Why is Harry from Henry?

   Henry的昵称还可以叫……Harry!

  

   《哈利·波特》中的哈利(Harry Potter)

    

   自中世纪以来,在英国,Harry就一直是Henry的昵称,而且一直人气满满,就连英国王室中的“Henry”也被人们称为Harry,即使在今天,威尔士Henry王子仍会被称为Harry王子。现在Harry也被直接用作男孩的大名。在美国,2006年时Harry已经成为受欢迎程度排名593位的名字。而这也许和《哈利•波特》风靡全球有关——虽然没有闪电疤痕,但也可以自称Harry嘛!

    

   Since Medieval times, Harry has been a consistently popular nickname for boys named Henry in England. Henry was also very popular among British monarchs, most of whom preferred to be called Harry by their subjects. This is a tradition that continues today as Prince Henry of Wales, as he was Christened, goes by Prince Harry. Of course, Harry is now used as a given name for boys. In 2006, it was the 593rd most popular name for boys in the United States. One reason for its upsurge in popularity is the huge success of those amazing Harry Potter books.

    

   9.Why is Jim from James?

   Jim正是……James的昵称!

  

   关于装扮黑人歌舞“Jump Jim Crow”的插画

    

   Jim作为James昵称的历史已不可考,不过Jim是一个在十九世纪二十年代就已经出现的单词。不幸的是,Jim因为19世纪早期一首白人装扮黑人的歌舞“Jump Jim Crow”带上了种族主义的标签。1904年Jim Crow试图分裂美国南方之后,Jim Crow就成为美国黑人的代名词。不过,最近,Jim作为男生名,似乎又开始受到欢迎啦~

    

   There are no definitive theories on how Jim became the commonly used nickname for James, but the name dates back to at least the 1820s. For decades, Jims were pretty unpopular due to the "Jim Crow Law," which was attributed to an early 19th century song and dance called "Jump Jim Crow," performed by white actors in blackface. The name "Jim Crow" soon became associated with African Americans and by 1904, Jim Crow aimed to promote segregation in the South. Jim has since shed its racial past, and is once again a popular first name for boys all by itself.

    

   10.Why is Sally from Sarah?

   Sarah的昵称是……Sally?

  

   史努比和莎莉•布朗(Sally Brown)

    

   不论在英国还是法国,Sally都是Sarah的昵称。鉴于外国小伙伴对于单词中字母“R”的不待见, Sarah中的R就被换成了简单好念的l,同理还有Mary变成了Molly。虽然在史努比漫画《花生漫画》中,主人公妹妹莎莉•布朗一直备受欢迎,但是Sally作为昵称似乎不再为小伙伴所爱。今天,大多数姑娘们更喜欢来自希伯来语的大名Sarah。

    

   Sally was primarily used as a nickname for Sarah in England and France. Like some English nicknames, Sally was derived by replacing the R in Sarah with an L. Same is true for Molly, a common nickname for Mary. Though Sally from the Peanuts never ages, the name itself does and has declined in popularity in recent years. Today, most girls prefer the original Hebrew name Sarah.

    

   什么?你还没有看过那篇“破解你英文名字背后的含义”?速戳“阅读原文”吧~

    

原创文章,未经许可不得转载。

 





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